Types of Construction Equipment and Functions

Types of Construction Equipment and Functions

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1. Bulldozer

Tools used to process land usually use BULLDOZER, used as a ground propulsion straight and sideways, depending on the axis of the vehicle. For work in swamps, a special type of bulldozer is called a Swamp Bulldozer.

Bulldozers can be divided into two, namely the Crawler Tractor Dozer and the Bulldozer that uses rubber wheels (Wheel Tractor Dozer). The disadvantage of this tool is that the mileage is too short, but it can withstand very heavy loads.

2. Excavator

As a ground digger and can also be used as a material to transport material into the truck. A popular term for this type of digging machine is an excavator. This excavator can be used as a carrier but unfortunately it cannot be used remotely.

3. Wheel Loader, Track Loader

The function of a wheel loader is to move material just like a dozer. This tool has a disadvantage about the distance traveled shorter than the truck.

4. Motor Scraper

The function of the motor scrapper is to cut the slope of the embankment or slope of the dam, digging the soil between concrete buildings or leveling the highway.

This tool is capable of digging up the surface to + 2.5 but unfortunately it can only transport in close proximity.

5. Motor Grader

The function of the motor grader is to evenly open the soil mechanically and for other purposes such as for land eviction, mixing the soil, leveling the embankment, reclaiming the soil excavation and so on.

6. Asphalt Finisher

The use of Asphalt Finisher is to spread the asphalt mixture produced from asphalt production equipment. The lack of a centipede wheel is longer maneuvering, the rubber wheel power threshold is more rough.

7. Mobile Crane

The function of the Mobile Crane is that as a means of transporting material, this tool can move easily but cannot be used on the surface of the water.

8. Pneumatic Tire Roller

The Pneumatic Tire Roller function is used for grinding granular materials, it is also good for using hot mix coatings.

Various Agricultural Tractors

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Agricultural tractors are defined as a vehicle that has its own driving force, minimum has a wheel shaft designed to attract and move agricultural tools / machinery. There are 3 types of agricultural tractors, namely:

1. Large Tractor

The main characteristic of large tractors is to have two wheel axles (wheeled four or more), having a length of about 1790 – 2070 mm, width 995 – 1020 mm, weight 385 – 535 kg, and power 12,5 – 20 HP. This tractor is often found in plantation companies that have a large enough area and large enough capital.

2. Mini Tractor

Mini tractor is a tractor that has two axle wheels (four-wheeled), has a length ranging from 1790-2070 mm, width 995-1020 mm, power 385-535 HP, working speed between 0.94 – 4.79 km / hour, and speed transport 7.54 – 13.31 km / hour.

This tractor is driven by a two cylinder or more diesel motor, has an advanced 6 speed, and 2 reverse speeds, which are divided into 4 types of low speed (including reverse speed) and 4 kinds of high speed (including reverse speed), and also have equipped with PTO (power take off), three point hitch (three point coupling / system mounted). Many types of tractors are owned by farmers.

3. Hand tractor

Hand tractors are agricultural tractors that only have one axle (two-wheeled), have a length ranging from 1740 – 2290 mm, width 710 – 880 mm and power 6-10 HP. This tractor is driven by a single cylinder diesel motor.

The Long History of Scania, Until Appearing to Be the World’s Leading Truck and Bus Manufacturer

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Scania Aktiebolag (publ), or better known as Scania AB, now appears as the leading commercial vehicle manufacturer from Sweden, which specializes in producing trucks and buses.

Established in 1891 in Malmo, Skåne, Sweden, Scania’s headquarters has been located in Södertälje since 1912. Today, Scania has several factories in Sweden, France, the Netherlands, Argentina, Brazil, Poland and Russia.

The Scania logo displays a griffin animal, which is a symbol of the province of Skåne.

Scania AB is the result of a merger of 2 companies, namely Vabis and Scania.

Vabis was founded in 1891 as a subsidiary of Surahammars Bruk, headquartered in Södertälje, to produce railroad cars. In 1902, Gustaf Erikson designed the first Vabis truck.

Until 1907, Vabis had also developed a 3-tonne truck, and despite winning the Swedish Royal Automobile Club award in 1909, this new model was not very popular.

Scania was founded in 1900 in Malmö, Sweden, and started business by producing bicycles. In 1903, Scania began producing cars. Two years later, Scania also began producing its first truck.

In 1911, the emergence of financial problems at Vabism made the two companies decide to join, and form AB Scania-Vabis.

Engine and car production was then centered in Södertälje, and truck production was centered in Malmö.

Forklift Parts and their Functions and Uses

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The fork is the main part of the forklift. Its function is to support and lift the goods being transported. The shape of the Fork itself is two straight iron with a length of about 2.5 meters. For the record, the position of the item placed above the Pallet that enters the Fork also determines the maximum load of goods that the Forklift itself can transport.


Just like Fork, Mast is included in the main part of a Forklift vehicle. Its function is to support the performance of the Fork. Mast consists of two thick iron blades that work using the hydrolic system. Mast main functions are to tilt (lift) or lift (lifting).


This is a Forklift section that connects the Mast and Fork. In this section the Fork attaches. Other functions of the Carriage are as a backrest and also the safety of items in the Pallet. This section also has a role in the process of lifting items.


The role of the Counterweight is quite important as a counterweight to the load on the Forklift. The position itself is the opposite of the Fork section.

Overhead Guard

Overhead Guard is a Forklift section in the form of a protector to protect drivers. In other words, this protective part relates to the safety user when an incident occurs, for example when an item suddenly falls when lifted or lowered. This part also functions as a protector when it is hot and rainy.

Various Types of Blades Used on Bulldozers

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Universal Blade (U-Blade)
This type of blade is equipped with wings (wing) which is on the side of the blade for effective production. This allows the bulldozer to carry / push more loads due to relatively small load losses over a considerable distance. Generally this type of bulldozer is often used for land reclamation work, stock pile work, and so on.

Straight Blade (S-Blade)
Straight blade is suitable for all types of fields, this blade is also a modification of the U-Blade, easier maneuvering and this balade can also handle material easily.

Angling Blade (A-Blade)
Angling blade is made for straight and angled positions. These blades can also be made for side casting, pioneering roads, digging channels (cutting ditches), and other suitable work.

Cushion Blade (C-Blade)
Cushion blade is equipped with a rubber cushion (Rubber cushion) which serves to reduce collisions. Besides being used for push-loading, it is also used for road maintenance and other dozing work considering the width of the C-Blade makes it possible to increase maneuverability.

Criteria for Selecting Tower Crane

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The choice of tower cranes as a device to divert material is based on a wide field situation, an elevation that is not achieved by other devices. And there is no need for tool movement. The choice of the type of tower crane to be used must consider the project conditions, the format of the building structure, the operational facilities both during installation and when demolition. Whereas the selection of tower crane capacity according to weight, dimensions, and range at the heaviest load, maximum elevation of the tool, assembly of projected devices, the weight of the device that must be supported by the structure, the space for the tool and the speed of the device to divert material.

The Workings of Wheel Loader

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How the Wheel loader works uses a hydraulic system. Because hydraulic power has a very large power or power, so it can make it possible to dredge, transport large-sized material or objects. For bucket operation “hydraulic controlled” is used, while cabel controlled control is rarely used on excavators -loader. The use of loaders is usually to load material and carry, and disassemble. If the area around the material is flat, the loader can move freely.

Wheel loaders work with basic movements on the bucket by carrying loads to be loaded onto a conveyance or other means. The important bucket movement is to lower the bucket above the ground, push forward (load / displace), lift the bucket, carry and dispose of the load. If it has to be loaded into a conveyance, for example a truck, there are several loading methods, namely:

  1. V – Loading
  2. L – Loading
  3. Cross Loading
  4. Overhead Loading

Important Parts of a Dump Truck

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In addition to looking at the benefits and functions, you also have to see what the most important parts of this dump truck are from the final drive, front wheel, dump body, rock ejector, steering and hois tanks, head lamp, radiator, canopy spill guard, radiator, turn signal lamp and oil retarder tank. There are even two groups that differentiate dump trucks based on the load and type of construction work.

For the large side of the load, the dump truck device is divided into two, namely On High Way Dump Truck, where the load is below the capacity of 20m3, while the second type is the Off high way dump truck that provides loads above 20m3. Whereas from the construction work side, the type of dump truck itself is divided into 3 types, namely rear dump trucks that use rear-shedding techniques, side dump trucks with side-shedding technology, and reard and side dump trucks which use the back and part shedding method side.

The Vital Role of Motor Graders at Construction Work

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Motor Grader or often also called Road Grader is a heavy equipment equipped with an elongated knife (blade). Its function is to flatten the surface of the land, take care of the road, peel off the soil, and spread light material during the process of construction work.

In general, the Motor Grader has 3 axles, one in the middle, the rear axle at the end of the vehicle, and the third axle is at the front end. While the engine and cabin are above.

There are six main parts on the Motor Grader unit. The six are the prime mover, skeleton or frame, sacrifier, blade or moldboard, circle and drawbar. The main driver of the Motor Grader itself is the tire wheel whose position is at the rear, while the function frame connects the front axle drive. Because the location of the frame is quite high, the machine is able to move agile when maneuvering.

When operated by the Motor Grader it is almost certain to use a moldboard or long knife whose movement is adjusted to surface conditions. Blade used usually has a length of between 3-5 meters. Depending on the field being worked on.

Functions and Parts of Excavators

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Excavators have parts in which function as follows:

  • Bucket: used to dredge soil
  • Bucket Cylinder: Moves Buckets
  • Arm: Swing the bucket up and down
  • Arm Cylinder: Move the Arm
  • Boom: The main lever that is used to move the Arm up and down
  • Boom Cylinder: Moves Boom
  • Tracker: As a wheel for excavators
  • Cabin: The place to control the excavator